Creation Science Book Review

Ice-sheet dynamics Sampling the surface of Taku Glacier in Alaska. There is increasingly dense firn between surface snow and blue glacier ice. An ice core is a vertical column through a glacier, sampling the layers that formed through an annual cycle of snowfall and melt. At Summit Camp in Greenland, the depth is 77 m and the ice is years old; at Dome C in Antarctica the depth is 95 m and the age years. The bubbles disappear and the ice becomes more transparent. Ice is lost at the edges of the glacier to icebergs , or to summer melting, and the overall shape of the glacier does not change much with time. These can be located using maps of the flow lines. These include soot, ash, and other types of particle from forest fires and volcanoes ; isotopes such as beryllium created by cosmic rays ; micrometeorites ; and pollen. It can be up to about 20 m thick, and though it has scientific value for example, it may contain subglacial microbial populations , [7] it often does not retain stratigraphic information.

Geochronology/Ice cores

Abstract Ice-core records show that climate changes in the past have been large, rapid, and synchronous over broad areas extending into low latitudes, with less variability over historical times. These ice-core records come from high mountain glaciers and the polar regions, including small ice caps and the large ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. As the world slid into and out of the last ice age, the general cooling and warming trends were punctuated by abrupt changes.

Climate shifts up to half as large as the entire difference between ice age and modern conditions occurred over hemispheric or broader regions in mere years to decades.

The deep-sea core timescale, based on the astronomical theory of the ice age, provides the timescale for ice cores by dating such events as the Younger Dryas and the stage 5e interglacial in the broad-scale oxygen isotope ratios in ice cores.

How do ice cores work? Current period is at right. From bottom to top: Milankovitch cycles connected to 18O. From top to bottom: Ice sheets have one particularly special property. They allow us to go back in time and to sample accumulation, air temperature and air chemistry from another time[1]. Ice core records allow us to generate continuous reconstructions of past climate, going back at least , years[2]. By looking at past concentrations of greenhouse gasses in layers in ice cores, scientists can calculate how modern amounts of carbon dioxide and methane compare to those of the past, and, essentially, compare past concentrations of greenhouse gasses to temperature.

Ice coring has been around since the s. Ice cores have been drilled in ice sheets worldwide, but notably in Greenland[3] and Antarctica[4, 5].

Climate Data Information

Greenland ice sheet Satellite composite image of Greenland. The ‘Greenland ice sheet’ Greenlandic: Sermersuaq is a vast body of ice covering 1. It is the second largest ice body in the World , after the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mean altitude of the ice is 2, meters. It did not develop at all until the late Pliocene, but apparently developed very rapidly with the first continental glaciation.

In , Willard F. Libby invented Carbon dating, winning a Nobel Prize (chemistry) for it in Since then, in the public schools of America, we are generally taught that carbon dating is a measurement used to accurately record the dates of creatures and artifacts.

I was wondering how ice cores are dated accurately. I know Carbon 14 is one method, but some ice cores go back hundreds of thousands of years. Would other isotopes with longer half-lives be more accurate? Also, how much does it cost to date the core? How are samples acquired without destroying the ice? I imagine keeping the ice intact as much as possible would be extremely valuable. Some of the answers to these questions are available on the Ice Core Basics page.

Ice cores can be dated using counting of annual layers in their uppermost layers. Dating the ice becomes harder with depth. Usually multiple methods are used to improve accuracy.

Young Earth Creation Science Argument Index

Ice core sample taken from drill. Photo by Lonnie Thompson , Byrd Polar Research Center An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier. Since the ice forms from the incremental buildup of annual layers of snow, lower layers are older than upper, and an ice core contains ice formed over a range of years.

So, the accuracy of the dating is said to be in years. mainly in the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. The Greenland Ice Sheet has an average depth of 1, meters (5, feet) with a maximum depth of about 3, meters (11, feet). Annual layers are distinctive in about the top m (1, feet) of the Greenland ice cores, then.

These are useful indicators of global-scale temperature changes from long before modern instrumental records were begun. This is especially true in Antarctica where ice-cores provide records that extend back almost , years. Links to isotope data from modern instrumental records can be found at: The lighter isotopes evaporate preferentially, especially if the water is cold, and the heavier isotopes condense preferentially to become precipitation.

Air reaching polar regions is therefore depleted in the heavier isotopes compared to ocean water, and this is especially so during glacial episodes. Nitrogen 15N can also provide information about diffusion in firn ice, a process which depends on the temperature gradient within the firn; a strong gradient can indicate periods of rapid climate change. These data have graciously been made freely available for access and distribution; the original investigators made the effort to obtain the data and assure their quality.

If data accessed from this site are to be used in a publication we strongly recommend some contact with the principal investigators at an early stage of the work to be sure the data are being interpreted and used correctly. Contributors Several investigators have contributed to the data set available from the Ice Core Gateway provided by the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology: A complete list is available at: Some specific projects that have contributed much of the ice-core data are: Locations of Antarctic ice-core stations.

The highest elevation above mean sea level in Antarctica is about m, near Dome A. Locations of Greenland ice-core stations.

A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the Holocene

Osterberg conducted his research using ice cores, which form due to meltwater that trickles down under the snow and refreezes. Summer ice layers are buried under fresh snow each winter, preserving the history of snowmelt. In total, seven ice cores were collected from Western Greenland during the first year of the study, each containing the history of ice melt dating back to

Current dating problems related to ice cores of Antarctic (EDC and EDML respectively in light and dark blue) and Greenland (orange), for the last deglaciation transitions: (A) Unexpected timing during the Bolling–Allerod transition between ice isotopic records with the EDC3, EDML1 and GICC05 ice age scales, with a yr lag between the.

In the sciences, it is important to distinguish between precision and accuracy. If we use the analogue of a clock we can investigate this further. Your wrist watch may measure time with a precision of one second. A stop watch may time your race with a precision of one hundredth of a second. However, if the clocks change and you forget to reset your wrist watch, then you have a very precise time but it is not very accurate — you will be an hour early or late for all of your meetings!

Scientists want measurements that are both accurate and precise… but it can be difficult to tell sometimes whether very precise measurements are actually accurate without an independent reference age see top right image versus bottom right image. Accurate measurements fall in the bulls eye. Precise measurements are tightly clustered.

Accurate and precise measurements are tightly clustered in the bulls eye! This is a problem we regularly encounter in chronostratigraphy.

Pleistocene Epoch

Originally published in Journal of Creation 15, no 3 December Abstract Ice cores found at the poles are thought to show , years of annual snow accumulation. Yet a plane squadron downed in Greenland was found buried in feet of ice that had accumulated in less than 50 years! The ice cores are properly understood as the remnants of the post-Flood Ice Age and snowfall since then.

The clarity of the annual signal in the isotope data makes counting of annual layers in δ 18 O data one of the most accurate ways of dating ice cores. At least the upper parts of most Greenland ice cores have therefore been dated from thousands of δ 18 O samples that have been individually cut from the ice core, packed, and measured in a mass spectrometer (read more about the measurements here).

But the planet bears the scars of only a few hundred of these impacts because of weathering processes like erosion. Through analysis of crater size and sediments from the crater, they estimate that the asteroid that slammed into Earth was more than a kilometer in diameter, composed mainly of iron. This discovery suggests that Earth may harbor more signs of its tumultuous history beneath its glaciers and ice sheets.

They were using archival measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet to study its ice flows and underlying bedrock. But when a group of Danish researchers noticed a circular depression in the bedrock at the northwest edge of the ice sheet, under Hiawatha Glacier, their curiosity was piqued. The hunt was on.

WW2 Aircraft Found Under 300 Ft of Greenland Ice

The cutter knives on the end of the drill are numbered 1, 2 and 3. The famous Camp Century deep ice core drill penetrated the inland ice to bedrock in to recover the first deep ice core in the world. An ice core from great depth is released from the core barrel.

Glacier Ice and Ice Core Dating PALEOCLIMATOLOGY / Ice Cores parisons of records from ice cores in Antarctica and Greenland allows determination of changes in the interpolar gradients of these gases, which reflects different biogenic production rates in the Northern.

Link to this page What the science says This argument uses temperatures from the top of the Greenland ice sheet. This data ends in , long before modern global warming began. It also reflects regional Greenland warming, not global warming. Most of the last 10, years were warmer Even if the warming were as big as the IPCC imagines, it would not be as dangerous as Mr. After all, recent research suggests that some 9, of the past 10, years were warmer than the present by up to 3 Celsius degrees: Christopher Monckton This argument is based on the work of Don Easterbrook who relies on temperatures at the top of the Greenland ice sheet as a proxy for global temperatures.

A single regional record cannot stand in for the global record — local variability will be higher than the global, plus we have evidence that Antarctic temperatures swing in the opposite direction to Arctic changes. Easterbrook, however, is content to ignore someone who has worked in this field, and relies entirely on Greenland data to make his case.

Most of the past 10, [years] have been warmer than the present. With the exception of a brief warm period about 8, years ago, the entire period from 1, to 10, years ago was significantly warmer than present. Another graph of temperatures from the Greenland ice core for the past 10, years is shown in Figure 5.

Do Greenland Ice Cores Show over One Hundred Thousand Years of Annual Layers?

I was wondering how ice cores are dated accurately. I know Carbon 14 is one method, but some ice cores go back hundreds of thousands of years. Would other isotopes with longer half-lives be more accurate? Also, how much does it cost to date the core? How are samples acquired without destroying the ice?

The World Data Center (WDC) for Paleoclimatology maintains archives of ice core data from polar and low-latitude mountain glaciers and ice caps throughout the world.

New Orleans—The oldest ice core ever drilled outside the polar regions may contain ice that formed during the Stone Age—more than , years ago, long before modern humans appeared. The change is most noticeable on the Guliya Ice Cap, where they drilled the latest ice core. In this region, the average temperature has risen 1. Lonnie Thompson , Distinguished University Professor in the School of Earth Sciences at The Ohio State University and co-leader of the international research team, said that the new data lend support to computer models of projected climate changes.

There, glaciologist Yao Tandong secured funding for a series of joint expeditions from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Of particular interest to the researchers is a projection from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that future temperatures on the planet will rise faster at high altitudes than they will at sea level. The warming at sea level is expected to reach 3 degrees Celsius by the year , and possibly double that, or 6 degrees Celsius, at the highest mountain peaks in the low latitudes.

In September and October of , the team ventured to Guliya and drilled through the ice cap until they hit bedrock. They recovered five ice cores, one of which is more than 1, feet long. The cores are composed of compressed layers of snow and ice that settled on the western Kunlun Mountains year after year.

In each layer, the ice captured chemicals from the air and precipitation during wet and dry seasons.

Ice core basics

The Earth’s Climatic History on Ice Paleoclimatologists are concerned with the cycle of glacials and interglacials that have occurred throughout Earth’s history. The variety of factors contributing to the climatic system results in complexities that are difficult to unravel. Ice core geochemistry has been instrumental in the quest for an understanding of Earth’s climatic past.

Glaciochemistry of polar ice cores: A review Michel Legrand Paul Andrew Mayewski University of Maine, We discuss ice core dating, the difficulties connected with trace measurements, and the significance of the Greenland ice cores have recorded the change in acidification of precipitation (HNO 3 and H2SO4) in.

The project was supported by the United States, Switzerland, and Denmark. The Greenland ice sheet formed from the incremental build up of annual layers of snow; so the age of the ice increases with the depth of the core. The time resolution — the shortest time period which can be accurately distinguished — depends on the amount of annual snowfall, and reduces with depth as the ice compacts under the weight of the layers accumulating on top. Beneath the firn the upper layers of ice in the core correspond to a single year or sometimes a single season.

Deeper into the ice the layers become more compressed and annual layers become indistinguishable. Any materials that were in the snow, such as dust, ash, bubbles of atmospheric gas and radioactive substances, remain in the ice.

Climate change: understanding the facts (Vostok ice core)

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